Earth’s atmosphere and water | WordlessTech


US Geological Survey

These two relatively small spheres are all the Earth‘s atmosphere and water.

The total volume of water on Earth is estimated at 1.386 billion km³ (333 million cubic miles). Of the liquid surface fresh water, 87% is contained in lakes, 11% in swamps, and only 2% in rivers. Small quantities of water also exist in the atmosphere and living beings.

The atmosphere has a mass of about 5.15×1018 kg, three-quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. As of 2023, by mole fraction (i.e., by number of molecules), dry air contains 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
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